Issue 18 - 2006


Conversational Strategies in Farsi Complaints: The Case of Iranian Complainees

Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan
University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

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APPENDIX A: Summary of Conversational Strategies Used in Complaints




1) Expressing emotions

a) Expressing negative feelings
b) Expressing disapproval

a) Expressing regret
b) Expressing disagreement

2) Dealing with complaint situation

a) Intensification of reproach
b) Maintaining stance by adding utterances
c) Sarcasm (and insulting)
d) Using complainee's words humorously

a) Repeating apologies
b) Stalling the complaint
c) Diverting the complaint

3) Providing rhetoric for argument

Holding the floor
a) by speaking fluently
b) by adding utterances
c) by controlling complaint topic

a) Reorienting the conversation to a solution
b) Closing the conversation

4) Manipulating development of conversation

a) Continuing the complaint

  1. by exact repetition
  2. by modified repetition or paraphrase

b) Avoiding continuation of complaint

a) Minimizing the confrontation
b) Confronting the complainer on a par


APPENDIX B: Checklist to be filled out by the observer/interviewee






Sex: Male q Female q



Social Class: Low q Mid q High q



Age: Teen q Young q Adult q Old q



Low q Mid q High q








Expressing emotions
(Strategy 1)

a) Expressing regret


b) Expressing disagreement


Dealing with complaint situation
(Strategy 2)

a) Repeating apologies


b) Stalling the complaint


c) Diverting the complaint


Providing rhetoric for argument
(Strategy 3)

a) Reorienting the conversation to a solution


b) Closing the conversation


Manipulating development of conversation
(Strategy 4)

a) Minimizing the confrontation


b) Confronting the complainer on a par









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The International Journal of Language, Society and Culture

Last Updated: 6 September, 2006 1:40 PM